All board exams, particularly those for class 12, are challenging and stressful for students. The board exam is the most decisive phase of their academic life and significantly impacts their future opportunities. However, preparing for the tests will be more beneficial than feeling stressed and anxious. Moreover, getting top marks might be easy if you are ready with the correct guidance and a well-planned study regimen.
To ensure success in CBSE class 12 physics board final exams, here are some topics, chapters, scoring criteria, and tactics to ace the exam:
a) Concept and content especially in relation to derivations and their applications to numerical, reasoning and graphs
b) Learn and remember the formulas and data given in NCERT like the characteristics of EMW
c) Graph analysis
d) Practice the questions as per CBSE sample paper
e) Time your preparations
f) Self-testing with sample papers
g) Practice NCERT questions
h) Follow the rule of DCDNN (Definition, conceptual, Derivations, Basic numerical and HOTS numerical)
i) Numericals mainly of series LCR, YDSE, Lens maker’s formula, KVL and KCL Capacitor, Internal Resistance, Combination of LR and CR in ac circuit, Faraday’s laws of EMI, Energy stored in inductors and capacitors, Capacitor series and parallel, EMW, Binding energy, Nuclear reactions, spectral lines, lenses, prisms direct and wrt of internal reflection, Charge combinations wrt force and fields,potential and Potentials energies of the charge systems, optical instruments, vector concepts of magnetic fields of currents, Conversions of galvanometer to ammeter, Diffraction and Interference, photoelectric equation, Bohr’s model etc.
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Wave Optics
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Atoms and Nuclei
MAIN POINTS CHAPTER WISE
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields
Main Points: Coulomb’s law-force between point charges, Electric field due to a point charge and electric dipole, torque and potential energy of a dipole in uniform electric field, Gauss’s theorem and its applications, that is, line charge and shell.
Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Main Points: Electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole, equipotential surfaces, Potential energy, dielectrics and electric polarization, Series and parallel of capacitors, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium, energy stored in a capacitor.
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
Main Points: Drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, V-I characteristics, electrical energy and power, factors of resistance, Internal resistance, potential difference and EMF of a cell, combination of cells , Kirchhoff’s rules, Wheatstone bridge.
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Main Points: Biot – Savart law and its application to circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, solenoid, force on a moving charge, a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field and force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque on current loop in uniform magnetic field; magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometer its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter
Main Points: Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole , torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet), Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction
Main Points: Faraday’s laws and induced EMF and current (methods of generation); Lenz’s Law and finding of direction like the questions in NCERT, self and mutual induction.
Chapter–7: Alternating Current
Main Points: Various value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power, power factor, wattless current.
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves
Main Points: Displacement current, electromagnetic spectrum including elementary facts about their uses and properties of electromagnetic waves.
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Main Points: Spherical mirrors formula, total internal reflection and optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, combination of thin lenses in contact, Prism and formula. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter–10: Wave Optics
Main Points: Huygens’s principle, Proof of laws of reflection and refraction, Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Sustained interference of light, diffraction and width of central maxima.
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Main Points: Hertz and Lenard’s observations, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, Experimental study of photoelectric effect and graphs, de-Broglie relation.
Main Points: Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom and derivation, spectral line spectra.
Main Points: Nuclear force, mass defect; calculation and significance of binding energy per nucleon and graph between it and mass number, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Main Points: Energy bands, difference between Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Junction diode – I-V characteristics, diode as a rectifier.
— Written by Alka Kapur, Principal, Modern Public School, Shalimar Bagh
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